Ionas philosopher who changed the world.
“Thales was one of the most important scientists of all time”
Intellectual and financial freedom create the perfect conditions for a spiritual take-off.
The Ionians, were the Greeks of the first diaspora, became free from the established way of life and thought, and far from any influence of the old changed the course of history. Anxious and adventurous, they quickly became financially independent of trade with other eastern peoples, and created an environment that allowed them to challenge, encourage, and allow for questioning and rational explanation of everything.
Suddenly the world abandoned the myths and religions that dominated its thinking for millennia, from its appearance on planet earth, and began to think logically.
The right moment had arrived in the history of mankind for the so-called creation of the Greek miracle.
Undoubtedly Thales the Milesian influenced humanity more than any other human being, he gave us the word and the common mind, a useful tool to do everything right.
“Those early philosophers had one thing in common: they all believed that behind all the changes there was a certain element of primacy.
“Thus philosophy was liberated from religion. We can say that the natural philosophers took the first steps towards a scientific way of thinking and thus laid the foundations for the later development of the natural sciences.
“… ..This process resulted in a deep spiritual fermentation, as well as serious effects on the mental history of man. It is obvious, then, that the economic and social conditions that prevailed in Ionia led to philosophical reflection. “
“But in the Ionian cities of the 7th and 6th century BC. there was a powerful bourgeoisie dominated by merchants and sailors. They tried to explain the phenomena – beyond the mythical interpretations of the world – with logic and the determination of the natural causes. “
“The city that pioneered this movement was Miletus with its numerous colonies. The first philosophers lived there: Thales (640 or 624 BC – 546 BC) Anaximander (610 – 547 BC) and Anaximenes (570-526 BC).
Thales the Milesian (640 or 624 BC – 546 BC) is the oldest prosocratic philosopher, the first of the seven sages of antiquity, mathematician, physicist, astronomer, engineer, meteorologist and founder of the Ionian School of natural philosophy in Miletus. ”.”
“According to Aristotle, Thales was the first philosopher and philosophy begins with him.
Stagiritis states: They asked about the first principles and causes… but Thalis, the leader of the same philosophy of water, is a principle … (Asking about the first principles and causes is a philosophy
Aristotle, Plato and several other philosophers consider Thales the first philosopher in history. After all, his name is among those of the “7 sages of antiquity”.
Even in modern times, Thales maintains his… mathematics “prestige”. One of the most important mathematicians of recent centuries, Bernard Russell, had stated: “Western philosophy begins with Thales.” Of course, this statement can be justified, since Thales was one of the first scientists to deal extensively with the concept of “logic”, which was the main object of study of Russell. “
“The members of the school of logic believed that logic was the basis for any kind of argument. The main representatives of this school were Bertrand Russell ((Bertrand Russell, 1872-1970)
It would be more appropriate if we corrected Bertrand Russell and said better that world culture begins with Thales, since Western culture today undoubtedly has a significant influence on world culture.
“Thalis Milesios was a multifaceted personality. He studied astronomy and mathematics, physics and philosophy. Much is said about his scientific achievements and it is difficult to distinguish how many of them are not due to the legend created around his personality. He emerged as perceptive mentally and politically
Thales first sought the beginning of beings not in God, but in some natural species. Thales’s attempt to explain the nature and the multitude of natural phenomena, no longer with myth and religion, but rationally, places him historically in the first place of the ancient Greek philosophical tradition “
“Thales the Milesian, this great philosopher and very capable observer of Nature, tried to explain the origin of the Universe by inductive research, setting aside the myth. He assumed that the primordial element, the beginning and the basis of the Universe, should be one of the four basic elements in fish ”
First, then, Thales Milesius, founder of the Ionian School and founder of theoretical Geometry and Astronomy, as a bearer of the theoretical Greek spirit, which is not content with finding and memorizing data but seeks theoretical explanation and justification of facts. notion of “principle”, which has since been a key condition of the world scientific intellect “
… ”It is certain that Thales is rightly considered one of the most important scientists… ..This is because the Milesian mathematician was the one who actually gave the impetus for the mathematicians to start thinking in a …scientific way…. “, Gave the hands of later scientists a powerful tool.
Whether he believed that water, apart from being a cosmogenic principle, participates in the constitution of the world or not, the important thing is that the philosopher removes his divine property from water and recognizes it only as a physical body.
The most important thing, however, is that through his problematic for the beginning of the world he reduced the multiple phenomena of the world to an impersonal, unique or unified principle, a fact that classifies him justly in the chorus of philosophers.
Thalis is also known for the successful prediction of the solar eclipse of 585.
During his long journey, Thalis took care to transmit some of his knowledge to the neighboring peoples. In fact, when he was in Egypt, in front of the impressive spectacle of the imposing pyramids, he made sure to make his most famous measurement. No one knew the true height of the great pyramid of Giza, until Thales made a very simple and clever thought. Placing a bar next to the monstrous building, he waited for the moment of the day when the shadow would reach the same length as wood. At the same time, the height of the pyramid could be measured through its shadow. An eternal problem, unsolved even for the builders of the pyramid, had been solved in such a simple way “.
For 2,500 years our people, when they want to say that someone is very smart, also say that he is “Thalis” (the “Aristotle”) as a sign of appreciation and admiration for the great thinkers. This was said more daily for many centuries after his death. Like the 78th Panhellenic Student Competition (P.M.D.) in Mathematics it is called “O THALIS” and it is not called Archimedes, Euclid, Pythagoras, to show the great appreciation that everyone has in Thales until today.
The “company” of Thales, (the most important Prosocratic philosophers and other philosophers).
The next philosopher from Miletus is Anaximander (610 – 547 BC) Like Thales, he also had important knowledge in mathematics, astronomy and geography.
It is said that he made the first map of the world, contributed to the introduction of the use of the sundial in Greece, while he also made a celestial sphere for the convenience of sailors. Specifically, he created a global model of the heavens in the center of which he placed the Earth (geocentric model of the universe).
However, the interests of Anaximander far exceed those of Thales. In addition to mathematics, astronomy and geography, he is interested in meteorology, anthropology, biology, and even the history of civilization. His interests betray his real intention: He wanted to give a universal picture of the natural course of things from their beginning to their present phase.
The first such example in the history of science is undoubtedly the theory of Anaximander, during the 6th c. BC, that the Earth hovers in a vacuum, a theory that according to K. Popper “is one of the boldest, most revolutionary and most wonderful ideas in the entire history of the human spirit.” What is remarkable about this idea is that insight and logic led Anaximander to the correct conclusion that the Earth can not be supported anywhere, but must be suspended, while, on the contrary, the observation and experience that we are on a flat earthly surface “Clearness with the circular horizon around us was what led him to the misconception that the Earth is a cylinder (and not a sphere), on one of the flat surfaces on which man lives.”
Anaximenes (570-526 BC
The third philosopher from Miletus was Anaximenes (c. 570-526 BC). His views are considered a consequence and variation of Anaximander’s views to the point that he is considered – but without sufficient evidence – his student.
“Heraclitus the Ephesian was a Greek prosocratic philosopher who lived from the 6th to the 5th BC. century in Ephesus, in Ionia of Asia Minor 535-470 px or 544-484? ”
Democritus (~ 460 BC – 370 BC, ETYM arch., Initial note “the judge of the municipality”, dῆmos + -critus <judge) was a prosocratic philosopher, who was born in Abdera, Thrace. . He was a student of Lefkipos. He believed that matter consisted rom inseparable, invisible elements, atoms. He was also the first to realize that the Galaxy is the light from distant stars. He was among the first to mention that the universe has other “worlds” and even some inhabitants. Democritus made it clear that emptiness is not identified with anything (“non-being”), that is, it is something that exists. “
Protagoras (c. 490 – c. 420 BC), from Abdera in Thrace, was an important sophist of antiquity. He was a contemporary of Democritus, also from Abdera, a leader among the sophists and the founder of the sophistic movement. As a teacher he traveled to many Greek cities. He often visited Athens where he became friends with Pericles and other prominent Athenians. It is reported that Pericles commissioned him to write the laws for the Thurians, the Athenian colony in Lower Italy founded in 444 BC on the site of Syvar. 
“Epicurus (341 BC – 270 BC) was a Greek philosopher. He founded his own philosophical school, called Kipos tou Epikourou, which is considered one of the most famous schools of Greek philosophy “
Socrates (Alopeki, Ancient Athens, 470 BC / 469  – Ancient Athens, 399 BC) was a Greek Athenian philosopher, one of the most important figures of Greek and world spirit and culture and one of the founders of the West. philosophy
Plato (Ancient Athens, 427 BC – Ancient Athens, 347 BC) was an ancient Greek philosopher from Athens, the most famous student of Socrates and teacher of Aristotle. His work, which in the form of philosophical dialogues has been saved in its entirety (even some incorrect works are attributed to him), exerted a huge influence on ancient Greek philosophy and in general on the Western philosophical tradition until today. The main builder of philosophy, the guide or forerunner of its later approaches, the inspirer directly or indirectly of the most important socio-political visions. 
Aristotle (Ancient Stageira, 384 BC – Ancient Chalkida, 322 BC) was an ancient Greek philosopher and scientist born in Stageira, Halkidiki, Macedonia. At the age of 17 he entered Plato’s Academy in Athens, where he remained until he was 37 years old. There he is associated with both Plato himself and Eudoxus, Xenocrates and other thinkers.  His works refer to many sciences, such as physics, biology, zoology, metaphysics, logic, ethics, poetry, theater, music, rhetoric, politics, etc., and constitute the first complete system in Western Philosophy.
Humanity has finally entered its course and the world has changed into its current form.
Θαλής ο Μιλήσιος: Ο μαθηματικός με την αθάνατη υστεροφημία – Ενας προάγγελος της αρχαίας επιστημονικής «επανάστασης» | iefimerida.gr
Η γέννηση της φιλοσοφίας στη Μίλητο