History of the Municipality of North Kynouria

The native Pelasgians had a golden rule that for millennia until today the inhabitants of Thyrea have faithfully applied, mutual respect, consensus, conciliation and the Greek measure. Thyratis Earth, a relatively small space for millennia until today, has managed to maintain its independence, its uniqueness, its comparative advantages, its characteristics, its culture and to bravely and effectively resist many small and large conquerors and invaders.

THOUKIDIDIS Stories (2.27.1-2)

 [2.27.1] “ένέστησαν δὲ καὶ Αἰγινήτας τῷ αὐτῷ θέρει τούτῳ ἐξ Αἰγίνης Ἀθηναῖοιαὐτούς τε καὶ παῖδας καὶ γυναῖκας,… ..2.27.2] Θυρεᾶτις γῆ μεθορία τῆς Ἀργείας καὶ Λακωνικῆς ἐστίνἐπὶ θάλασσαν καθήκουσακαὶ οἱ μὲν αὐτῶν ἐνταῦθα ᾤκησανοἱ δ᾽ ἐσπάρησαν κατὰ τὴν ἄλλην λλάδα .

 History (Herodotus) / Klio, 82.1 & 82.2

82.1 ἔς τε δὴ ὦν τὰς ἄλλας ἔπεμπε συμμαχίας καὶ δὴ καὶ ἐς Λακεδαίμονατοῖσι δὲ καὶ αὐτοῖσι τοῖσι Σπαρτιήτῃσι κατ᾽ αὐτὸν τοῦτον τὸν χρόνον συνεπεπτώκεε ἔρις ἐοῦσα πρὸς Ἀργείους περὶ χώρου καλεομένου Θυρέης · 82.2 τὰς γὰρ Θυρέας ταύτας ἐοῦσα τῆς Ἀργολόςἦν δὲ καὶ  μέχρι Μαλέων  πρὸς ἑσπέρην Ἀργείων τε ἐν τῇ ἠπείρῳ χώρῇ καὶ  Κυθηρίη νῆσος καὶ αἱ λοιπαὶ τῶν νήσων

Kynouria derives its name from the ancient settler of the area Kynouros, son of Perseus according to the Argeian tradition. The inhabitants of Kynouria were in order Pelasgians, Danaeans, Ionians and Dorians. The Kynourians were Ionians and gave the name of the area after them.

In northern Kynouria, in ancient times it corresponded to the area of ​​Thyreatida land, there was the main settlement of the area Thyrea and secondary Anthini, Nirida, Eva and later at least from the 2nd century AD Astros. The view is supported by historians that the Thyrates came from the Danes. who settled in Argos, the first city in Europe, from 2,800-2,000 BC.

Thucydides, the world’s first historian, and Herodotus, report that Thyreatis Earth (Thyrea) existed 3,000 years ago, with a reference by Herodotus to 1,100 BC.

As for the toponym “Thyrea”, it owes its origin to the fact that the area was the passage or door of communication and transition from the State of Argos to the State of Sparta and vice versa (Thucydides, BD 27). In fact, the natural limit, according to Euripides (El. 410-2), was “Tanaos”, that is, the current torrent Tanos.

The first traces of human presence can be seen with certainty at least from the Neolithic years. Rich finds of this period, as well as of the Bronze Age from the places of Marmaralona (Xerokampos), Koutri (Ano Meligous), Agios Georgios (Meligous), Herronisi (Branch Issue, photo 1), Paralio Island, on the road near Leon Beach in Geraki, illuminate these prehistoric years. The first inhabitants belong to the pre-Hellenic leaves, were the Pelasgians, who lived in Kynouria before the Arcadians in Arcadia and the (early Greek) Danes in Argolida and on the coasts of Kynouria. Then the Ionians settled in Kynouria. The creators of the Mycenaean civilization, the Achaeans, settled in Argolis around 1600 BC. A little later they descended from there to Laconia, while Kynouria was already part of Argeia land. These are also testified by the findings from Herronisi, the Island of Agios Andreas, Elliniko Astros, Kastraki Meligous.

With the descent of the Dorians, who came and occupied the land last, the dispossession of the inhabitants begins. The borders of the three territories meet in the region: the Dorians of Sparta, the Arcadians of Tegea and the Achaeans of Argos. A typical testimony is the findings at the site Fonomenoi tou Ag. Petrou, next to the road to Karyes, where three large stone piles were found which corresponded to the borders of the territories of Argos, Tegea and Sparta and were ancient sanctuaries dedicated to Enodion Hermes.

The area soon became the target of its powerful neighbors, the Spartans, the Argians and the Arcadians / Tegeates. It was mainly the apple of contention between the Spartans and the Argives, as it was located between the two states and had a special geo-strategic position, which resulted in a war (around the end of the 11th century BC according to Herodotus). Geographically, its area is divided into two major sections. The north, which in ancient times corresponded to Thyreatida, with the main settlement of Thyrea and secondary Anthini, Nirida, Eva and Astros, while the south corresponded to the country of Prasia, in which there was the main settlement Prasiai and the secondary , Cheese and Sculpture. Until the 7th c. e.g. Kynouria must maintain its autonomy (resulting from the participation of the Greens in the Amphitryon of Kalavria) despite all the diseases of Argos and Sparta to annex it. However, the area of ​​Prasia must have been more related to Laconia, while the area of ​​Thyreatida to Argolida.

Despite the intense pressure of its neighbors, Kynouria must have remained independent until the time of Argeios Tyrannus Feidonas, when it passed to the rule of Argos, which was then at its peak. After Phaedo, however, Argos gradually began to decline while Sparta was gaining strength. The fate of Kynouria seems to have been finally decided in 546 BC, at the battle of Thyrea (or the battle of the Six Hundred Chosen Ones), when Sparta prevailed over Argos and gained control of Kynouria. In 424 BC. the Athenian fleet reached the shores of Thyreatida, captured it, looted it, set it on fire and destroyed it completely. Kynouria remained Spartan until 338 BC. when Philip II ceded its northern part to the Argives until the Roman period, while the southern region of Prasia and Tire (which was the natural border of ancient Sparta) remained in Sparta.

Wall or Greek and the Shield

At a distance of ten kilometers from today’s Astros, in the area of ​​Teichiou or Elliniko, most probably here was the city of Thyrea, there was a Temple dedicated to the god Apollo which was especially worshiped by the Kynouri. In this place today are the ruins of an ancient city of the 5th to 3rd century BC according to archaeologists. Here you can see the ruins of walls, buildings and underground tanks. .


At a distance of three kilometers from the city of Astros is the area of ​​Ancient Eva, where today are the ruins of the villa of Herodes Atticus that were discovered in excavations carried out there in recent years. In the same excavations were found great and unique findings dating from the 4th BC. century until the 2nd century AD These findings are kept in the Archaeological Museum of Astros.


Next to the Port of Agios Andreas there is the “island of Agios Andreas” where one can see ruins of a cyclopean wall that belong according to the testimonies to the ancient city of Anthini. Parts of the outer precinct with towers of the 5th-4th century are preserved. e.g. Later the city was moved lower to the sea, where Late Roman ruins and additional fortifications from Byzantine times are preserved. Near the castle is preserved half a damaged arched stone bridge.

The historic Astros of Kynouria is located on the west beach of the Argolic, where the above map shows the ancient city of Thyrea, south of the first city in Europe the historic Argos and the seat of the Mycenaean civilization Mycenae

For thousands of years nothing significant happened that we know in the area, “everything was plagued by bullying and slavery.” raiders until 1821.

Roman and Byzantine Period

For the historical route of the area during Roman and Byzantine times, information is scarce, which does not allow the formation of a clear picture. We know that during the period of the settlement of the Slavs in the Peloponnese (6th century onwards) two Slavic tribes – the Milingos and the Ezerites – chose as their place of residence the inaccessible areas of Taygetos and Parnon. During the reign of Emperor Basil I of Macedon (867-866) they also embraced Christianity, like the Greeks of Parnon and Taygetus, and since then they have not occupied History as a separate national entity.

The villages of Parnonas were Christianized around the 9th century and out of excessive respect many added the word Agios to their name, such as Agios Ioannis, Agios Petros, Agios Nikolaos, Agios Andreas, Agios Vassilios, Agios Aomatoi, Agios Panos George, Kosmas and filled the place with churches and monasteries. They also called many sites “holy”. For this reason Parnonas was named the “Holy Mountain” of Southern Greece.

Frankish-Turkish occupation

After the 12th century the lowlands were abandoned by the inhabitants and now they live permanently in the mountains to escape the incessant raids, the corsairs and the conquerors.

William Villehardouin to subdue the disobedient Tsakon neighbors in Sitaina, Kastanitsa and Prasto, where the Tsakon were, “up in the mountains” suso en law montanyas, as mentioned in the Chronicle of Morea, built the castle of Ostre location near “Xerokambi”, of Agios Ioannis of Thyreatida.

Today, this mountain castle is considered to be the fortress mentioned in the Aragonese Chronicle of Morea as Estella ((translation of the Greek word Astros) and has become known by the popular name “Castle of the Hour”, which is found in other parts of Greece, due to popular tradition regarding its occupation . Based on this identification and reference to the Aragonese Chronicle, the castle must have been built no later than the 14th century and most likely the 13th.

William Villehardouin also at the same time in 1256 AD, built the castle Estella (Castello de lla estella) in the later called “Island” of Paralio Astros which was later named Castle of Paralio Astros or Zafeiropoulos.

“Kynouria then participates in the common fate of the Peloponnese: it has a first small taste of the Turkish occupation after the Turkish invasion of Moria (1460), it knows the restoration of Venetian rule until 1715 and from then until its liberation struggle 1821 is part of the vast Ottoman Empire. The Turkish occupation, however, failed to completely suspend the economic and intellectual activity of the Kynourians. There is an extraordinary mobility in these areas, which focuses on the comas of Ag. Ioannis, Meligos, Platanos and the surrounding monasteries. “Shortly before the revolution, Astros was revived with the help of fiery men, among whom the Karytsiotai brothers hold a prominent position.”


Municipality of Thyreas

The Municipality of Thyreas was established by a decree of 9 (21) November 1834/12 May 1835, according to which the first municipalities of Arcadia and Kynouria were established. / 1835 Establishment of the municipality with headquarters in the settlement of Agios Ioannis, Government Gazette 5A – 08/03/1841 The settlement of Astros is defined as the winter seat of the municipality, The settlement of Agios Ioannis is defined as the summer seat of the municipality. In 1836, when the municipalities took their final form, the Municipality of Thyreas included the villages of Agios Ioannis, Astros and Meligou. In 1840 the Municipality of Platanos (Platanos) was merged into the municipality of Thyreas. In 1845 Paralion Astros (Arcadia) Government Gazette 32A – 08/12/1845 and Xiropigado and in 1879 Haradros (then Trestena) were added to the municipality. For many centuries until the 1950s, Agiannis, today’s summer settlement of Astros, was the metropolitan center of Thyrea.

In 1912, the old Municipal system of 1834 was abolished and communities were established. The following communities emerged from the Municipality of Thyreas: Astros, Vervena, Xiropigadou, Paralio Astros, Meligos, Platanos and Haradros.

Municipality of Astros (Arcadia) Government Gazette 99A – 28/05/1985 The municipality came from the recognition in a municipality of the community of Astros

Municipality of North Kynouria

Government Gazette 244A – 04/12/1997 The settlement of Astros is detached from the municipality and the seat of the municipality of North Kynouria is defined The settlement of Agios Ioannis is detached from the municipality and annexed to the municipality of North Kynouria

Municipality of North Kynouria – Wikipedia (wikipedia.org)

The Municipality of North Kynouria is a municipality of Arcadia and the Peloponnese Region, which was established in 1997 according to the Administrative Reform of “Kapodistrias” and remained intact in terms of its extent by the later “Kallikratis”. It is located in the eastern part of the Peloponnese and is bathed by the Argolic Gulf. Its population is 10,341 inhabitants and its area is 575.7 sq.km. The seat of the municipality is Astros.

Local Communities Municipality of North Kynouria (boriakinouria.gov.gr)

Agia Sofia, Agios Andreas, Agios Georgios, Agios Petros, Astros, Vervena, Doliana, Elatos, Karatoula, Kastanitsa, Kastri, Korakovouni, Koutroufa, Meligou, Mesorrachi, Nea Chora, Paralio Astros, Perdikovrisi, Xiropigado, Sitaina, Stolos, Haradros, Oria. Also, the municipality includes about 40 small settlements.

Astros and Agios Ioannis (Agiannis)

The Second National Assembly of the Greeks took place in Astros in 1823.

Astros and Agiannis have been for at least eight hundred years and are now a community with the same inhabitants.

The first official reference of the city with the name “Astros” is found in a gold bull of the year 1293 of the emperor Andronikos II Palaiologos. However, the first reference to the name “Astron” corresponds to the Geographer Claudius Ptolemy (2nd century AD).

For many centuries before the revolution of 1821 in different reports and maps the two settlements Astros and Agiannis are mixed, Astros refers to Astros, becomes Agiannis, Kalivia Astros, Agiannitika huts and Agiannis refers to Agiannis, becomes Astros, the Astros, and Agiannis of Astros. It seems that Astros started from Xerokambi and the castle of Oria, Estella, which is located near Agianni, to the castle of Paralio Astros or also Estella, (which is also mentioned in many maps as a castle), and its core was its inhabitants Agianni and today’s Astros and surely the settler of Paralio Astros Agiannitis Akouros agreed with them, who knew his place better than all of us. Thucydides told us, “the inhabitants are the states”, not the states, the cities and the castles.

In 1805, a branch of the Karytsio school was founded in Astros of Agios Ioannis (1798) (now Archaeological Museum), which was attended by young people from various parts of Greece. Together with the school, Dimitrios Karytsiotis from Agiannitis (1741 – 1819), donated a large area, the so-called Farm Garden.

Astros played an important role in the Revolution, from March 30 to April 18, 1823, in the courtyard of the Karytsiotis school in Astros, the Second National Assembly of the Greeks took place, in which the new revised Constitution of revolutionary Greece was voted. The anniversary of this event is celebrated with special splendor every year on Easter Friday.

The decisions of the National Assembly were very important for the establishment and organization of the Greek State.

The Nation acquired a final Constitution, which by decision of the assembly was “the supreme law”, named “Law of Epidaurus” as a continuation of the first national assembly in Epidaurus, and served the laws of the parliament… By decision of the assembly, the catalytic intervention of Kolokotron , the rage of the people and the army, prevents the sale of the national lands – estates, left behind by the Turkish lords, which were sought and wanted by the Kotzabasids of the assembly.

The assembly voted the famous “Declaration of the NW of the Greek Assembly”, to the World, signed by 128 Plenipotentiaries, including Kolokotronis and the assembly responded with the proclamation, to the world and the elders of the time. “We are determined to become independent, as an autonomous and independent nation.” a little topical today…

The Kolokotronian table in Astros

The Astra tradition brings Kolokotronis to a meal, in 1821 in Astros, at Dimitrios Ypsilantis, the table known as Kolokotroneiko. The meal took place in the garden of Karytsiotis under the telio, which still exists and is dying late, and in the area there is a relevant sign, next to the School of Karytsiotis (now Archaeological Museum of Astros). Tertsetis reports that “Dimitrios Ypsilantis and Kolokotronis collaborated in the shadows of the trees of Astros”. Kolokotronis deliberately, in order to adapt the prince to the Greek reality, said to Dimitrios Ypsilantis at the table, cutting the roast with his own hands “these are the golden forks and the golden knives of Greece” which were his hands… ..

Agios Ioannis (Agiannis)

Agios Ioannis (Agiannis) of Kynouria, was the capital of the Greek state in 1822 and offered many important things to the revolution of 1821. From 1834 to 1912, it was the summer seat of the Municipality of Thyreas, the winter seat was Astros since 1841. In 1845, the village became the seat of Kynouria Province. From this village came Astros, Paralio Astros and other small settlements.

Agios Ioannis is mentioned for the first time in 1435 in the Chronicle of the Fall of Georgios Sfrantzis and probably took its name from the church of Agios Ioannis Prodromos, located at the bottom of the village. From the sigil of 1638 we are informed that Agiannis became a patriarchal exarchate “for the sake of course of the School of Agios Ioannis, operating much older”. According to this passage, a school operated in Agios Ioannis, long before 1638. In Agios Ioannis, there were also “inferior” schools, such as that of Papakyriakos and secret schools, initially in Metochi of the Loukous Monastery, Agios Dimitrios and later in the narthexes of village churches

The Agiannites really never surrendered to the conquerors and as a proof of their way they managed to keep their schools open throughout the Turkish yoke and kept the flame of the nation hidden and openly lit.

Our great benefactor Dimitrios Karytsiotis <1741-1819> was born in Agios Ioannis <Agiannis> and according to the tradition of Agianniti, he left “with a tsarouchi”. and in 1805 he built in Astros the branch of the School of Agios Ioannis. This school operated during the years 1798 – 1826 and gained a great reputation, as in the Karytsiotis School, students from different parts of Greece gathered.

General Panos Zafeiropoulos (Akouros).

The people of Agiannites contributed a lot and significantly to the Greek revolution of 1821 and the most important of all the people of Agiannites was General Panos Zafeiropoulos (Akouros), responsible for military security during the war of the National Assembly in Astros. At the beginning of the revolution, under the leadership of Panos Zafeiropoulos, more than 100 inhabitants of Agiannis, participated in battles of the Dolians and the Bervens, in Tripolitsa and throughout the Peloponnese. Agiannis highlighted other important personalities who played a decisive role in the preparation and during the revolution and helped in the liberation struggle, such as Panos Sarigiannis, Ioannis Zafeiropoulos, Konstantinos Zafeiropoulos and Georgakis Digenis who died in the 18th battle.

His “government” Agianni

From the beginning in 1821, discussions began between the revolutionaries to make Agiannis the capital of the free Greek state. The Karytsiotis school played a primary and decisive role in making Agiannis the capital of revolutionary Greece from August 15 to October 1, 1822. The “government” located very close to the Karytsiotis school of Agiannis was the seat of government. . This period is also confirmed by the Archives of Lazaros and Georgios Kountouriotis (vol. AD, p. 92 ff.).

 In 1826 the village was completely destroyed by the hordes of Ibrahim, while the same fate befell other villages in the area, such as Vervena, Prastos and others. Ibrahim completely destroyed the School of Karytsiotis as well as many churches, such as Agios Vassilios, Agios Efstratios, Agios Petros and many others,

The Castle of Paralio Astros or that of Zafeiropoulos

William Villehardouin in 1256 AD, built the castle Estella (Castello de lla estella) on the later called “island” of Paralio Astros. In 1824 Panos Zafeiropoulos the Akouros with his brothers Ioannis and Konstantinos renovated and fortified the ruined castle, in fact he built three fortified houses inside the castle for himself and his brothers and at the same time he started the settlement of Paralio Astros with the Saints his fighters. The Zafeiropoulos brothers are the first inhabitants of Paralio Astros.

At the beginning of August 1826 at the Castle of Paralio Astros the 2,000 Greek fighters led by Panos (Akouros) Zafeiropoulos, will successfully repel the hordes of Ibrahim, who will then chase in the plain of Thyrea, achieving a glorious victory of the Greeks for the Greek Revolution. Ibrahim slaughtered and burned the whole Peloponnese, but he was never able to defeat Akouros, although he had been temporarily captured, not even in the castle of Paralio Astros, someone had to resist… and it is our great honor, this was Agiannitis Panagiotis Zafe Akouros) .. Panos Zafeiropoulos and his brothers, well fortified in the Castle, but also with the help of other fighters put up such strong resistance that they forced him to flee. According to the testimony of Kolokotronis, this Castle remained the only invincible.

The “camp of the Bervens”

It is no coincidence that our ancestors “lived for four hundred and so many years in the abomination and resurrection day”. In world history no nation has resisted for four hundred years and finally victoriously drove out the conquerors.

The historical Bervena in antiquity was inhabited by the Bervenians, an Arcadian genus, while the area of ​​the present village belonged to ancient Arcadia. The oldest relics that have been identified in the area date back to the 2nd millennium BC. and these are stone pickaxes found at Petra. Relics of Artemis from the 9th century BC were found in the place of Panteleimon. until the Hellenistic years. In this place during the 6th c. e.g. an all-marble temple of Doric style was built.

In the revolution of 1821, Vervena played an important role, mainly due to their strategic position. The “Berven camp” was the first organized camp of the struggle, it had about 2,500 fighters (the other three were from Valtetsi, Chrysovitsi and Piana) and one of the most important camps during the first days of the struggle. Here Kolokotronis had set up his headquarters, in the Tower of Augustus, before his attack against the Turks for the conquest of Tripolitsa.

The first organized “Tutorial of the Struggle” also operated in historic Vervena, where the military organization, martial arts and military discipline of the spontaneous revolutionary fighters were taught. The Peloponnesian Senate was also stationed in historic Vervena to coordinate the liberation struggle. In the center of the village, there is the three-storey vaulted tower-residence of the Darveris family, where the first national printing house sent from Trieste, necessary for the organization of the Greek state, was established during the years of the Revolution. On June 21, 1821, Dimitrios Ypsilantis arrived in Vervena from Odessa, Russia, where he was officially welcomed by the Peloponnesian Senate, which is mentioned on the marble plaque, which was hung in 1920 at the reception point.

All the villages of Thyrea, without exception, helped the revolution. The Proestos and Demogerdos of Prastos, in consultation with Kolokotronis and the people of Verveni, Karabela and Kritiko, established in Vervena the famous “Cellar”, ie the chamber of the Army, so that Prastos could supply the army with food in the army. which was attended by many Prastian fighters. Agiopetritis Protestos, Anagnostis Kontakis, writes that: “if it were not for Prastos, who fed the army for 4 months, the struggle for freedom would have been lost”. General The caretaker was Georgios Trochanis from Agianni.

The Turks after their defeat in Vervena and Doliana were permanently closed in Tripolitsa.

The battle of historic Vervena and historic Doliana on May 18, 1821 thwarted the disbandment of the Berven camp and the plan of the Turks. It also boosted the morale of the revolutionaries and paved the way for the fall of Tripoli.

Undoubtedly, the “camp of the Bervens” played a catalytic importance for the organization and success of the liberation struggle.

The battles at Doliana and Vervena.

In the first major victories of the Greek fighters of 1821 in Valtetsi, Vervena and Doliana, the fate of the liberation struggle was decided and the way was opened for the liberation of enslaved Tripolitsa, which was the most ingenious and grandiose plan of the Elder of Moria, final success of the match. Typically before the battle of Doliana and Vervena, the Greeks said “the Turks are coming” and hid and after the decisive victory they said “where are the Turks” to slaughter them. The “Turkophagus” with his blood-stained sword raised high chased the Turks to Tripolitsa shouting loudly “Where are you going Persians! Stand up to fight! Essentially in historic Vervena and historic Doliana “the armies of Moria were closed” so that we can be free today.

On May 18, 1821, Nikitaras, with only 200 men, heroically confronted the thousands of Mustafabey Turks in Doliana. With reinforcements coming from Vervena, a place also known for another equally large battle that took place earlier that day, the enemy retreated with such heavy losses that Nikitaras has since been called “Turkophagus”.

The victories of the Greeks earlier in Valtetsi, and on May 18, 1821 in Vervena and Doliana were decisive for the spread and establishment of the Struggle in the Peloponnese, and are another great station of the National Uprising. The historic Vervena and the historic Doliana (and the drum of the Turkophagus) are known from the first very important victories in the liberation struggle on May 18, 1821, which at that difficult time filled the rebellious Greeks with the necessary confidence.

Kolokotronis mentions in his memoirs: “The horde of Berbens touched them closely. “After weighing near Doliana, the Turks also besieged Nikitas, and so Nikitas and his men came out, and took them down to the plain, hunting.”

The liberation of the nation is not donated but is won on the battlefields with the blood of our heroic ancestors who practically did their patriotic duty. Unfortunately in Dragouni on May 18, 1821, the Turks with the superiority of the cavalry defeated the Greeks and there the Agiannitis chief Panos Zafeiropoulos Georgakis Digenis and Agiannites fighters were killed. Panos (Akouros) Zafeiropoulos participated in the battle of Vervena.

Saint Peter

Agios Petros is mentioned for the first time in 1435 in the Chronicle of the Fall of Georgios Sfrantzis. In the following years the village is mentioned in various documents of the time. Around 1600 in the village was born Agios Nilos the Myrovlitis (according to the world Nikolaos Terzakis, † 1651), who consecrated in the Monastery of Malevi and later on Mount Athos. During the Venetian period, in 1687, Agios Petros became the seat of the Province of Agios Petros Tsakonia (Territorio di San Pietro di Zacognia). At the same time (18th century) the village experienced great growth due to trade, with a population then almost 4,000 inhabitants and many mansions – tower houses.

During the Turkish occupation, Agios Petros became the seat of the Vilayet of Agios Petros, which included Kastri, Agios Ioannis, Platanos, Meligos, Haradros, Astros, Korakovouni, Prastos, Sitaina, Kastanitsa, V Doliana et al. After 1775, the thieves Giannis Karabelas, Antonakis Alevizos, fought and resisted against the Turkalvans. In 1786 these two thieves, in collaboration with Captain Zacharias and other Agiopetrites, fought the Turks in the Monastery of Malevi.

“The prostitute Anagnostis Kondakis initiated in the Friendly Society half of the Peloponnese”.

With the founding of the Friendly Society, in 1814, several Agiopetrites began to participate, including the prostitute Anagnostis Kondakis, the abbot of the Monastery of Malevi, Kallinikos Tsiamouris and others. The contribution of the village to the Revolution of 1821 was important. On March 24, 1821, Anagnostis Kondakis proclaims the Revolution in the area. Several Agiopetrites, under Anagnostis Kondakis, participated with great success in the battles of Doliana and Vervena, Tripolitsa, Valtetsi, etc., in collaboration with the other military corps of Kynouria. In 1826 Ibrahim Pasha completely destroyed the village, as well as all the other villages. of the area. In the following years Agios Petros became the seat of the Community of Agios Petros. In 1944, during the German occupation, 48 German civilians were executed by the Germans.

In all the national liberation struggles that followed until the modern era, the region paid the bravery of its inhabitants with a heavy blood tax (a typical example is the execution of the inhabitants of St. Peter during the German occupation).


Platanos is a village, which is located amphitheatrically built on the slopes of Mount Parnonas. Administratively it belongs to the Municipality of North Kynouria in the Prefecture of Arcadia.

Platanos is mentioned for the first time in the Chronicle of the Fall of Georgios Sfrantzis in 1435, with the name Platamonas. In the following years, he refers to several documents during the Venetian period. Before and during the Second Ottoman Empire (18th and 19th centuries) the village flourished, along with other neighboring villages. At the same time, several mansions and tower houses were built. The contribution of the village was important during the Revolution of 1821. In 1826, Ibrahim passed through the village but the inhabitants were saved because they hid in a cave on the opposite hill which the inhabitants still call “troupa”. There is an oven and a cistern inside.

After the liberation, it became the seat of the municipality of Platanos, while in the following years, after its merger with the Municipality of Thyreas, it became the seat of the homonymous community.


Orini Meligou is mentioned for the first time in the Chronicle of Moreos by Georgios Sfrantzis in the year 1435 with the name Meligou. The name “Meligou” is of Slavic origin and comes from the tribe of Milingos (or Melingos), who together with the Ezerites settled in the 9th century. in Parnonas, leaving many place names. In the 17th and 18th c. Meligou developed and became one of the richest and most powerful villages in the area along with Agios Ioannis, Agios Petros, Platanos and others. Meligou’s contribution to the Revolution of 1821 was important, as many Meligiotes participated in various battles such as the Bervens, the Dolians, the Tripolitsakas. In 1826, Orini Meligou was completely destroyed by the armies of Ibrahim Pasha, while other villages in the area had the same fate. After the liberation, Meligou became part of the Municipality of Thyreas (based in Agios Ioannis and Astros), while its inhabitants settled permanently in Meliggiotika Kalivia (today’s Winter of Meligou, Arcadia).

In Meligou there is a bust of Kolokotronis, who had camped with the other fighters during the Second National Assembly of the Greeks in Astros, Kynouria.

The “political wisdom” of General Theodoros Kolokotronis played a catalytic importance in order to maintain the necessary “national reconciliation and national unity” at that time. The old man of Moria accepted “what was decided” by the assembly, even his dismissal by a general, who had won on the battlefields by the fighters, as in the destruction of Dramalis in Dervenakia, which undoubtedly played a catalytic role in the victorious course of the liberation match.

The old man of Moria considered it necessary to say things by name, and warned the “tsoglani” Alexandros Mavrokordatos, as the fighters called him.

“I tell you this, Mr. Mavrokordate; do not sit president because I come and drive you away with the lemons, with the veda where you came”

Kotzambasism, the “collaborators” of the authorities and the “janissaries” are a Turkish curse and the worst plague and plague of the Greek Nation.

The old man of Moria earlier in Vervena on June 21, 1821 and in Zarakova on July 4, 1821, literally saved the Senators Kotzabasides from ransom from the rage of the fighters and the people. Typically said to the furious crowd you must kill me first.

Also in Meligou, the old man of Moria rejected the proposals of the chiefs Plapoutas and Androutsos to slaughter the Kotzabasides gathered in Astros from all over the territory, he did not want Greek blood to be shed. Typically he told Adroutsos. “Well, what did you do to the people, to slaughter them?” “These politicians know such tricks in political things that are useful to us, as we are more useful in war.”

His target at that time was the Turkish conquerors, who were robbing and committing acts of violence against the people, they were being fought by the old man of Moria. He did not fight for himself, nor for chairs and headquarters, nor for the Kotzabasids, because they were comfortable and enjoyed the robberies, taxes and looting that they did as good collaborators of the conquerors.

After the liberation from the Turkish conquerors, when he was chained together with Plapoutas, by the same Kotzabasids who are always near where there are spoons, Plapoutas reminded him of their conversations in Meligou, but the old man of Morias pointed out to him, “the Greeks they were free and that was the most important thing. “


The well-known Filikos Georgios Leventis was born in 1790 in Korakovouni (located 7 km south of Astros). Georgios Leventis together with the other Arkadas Panagiotis Sekeris were the main sponsors of the great cause of the Friendly Society.

Mountainous Korakovouni is a mountainous settlement, built at an altitude of 534 m. It is 12 km from Korakovounika and 22 km from Astros. The village belongs administratively to the Municipality of North Kynouria and has a population of 8 permanent residents according to the 2011 census

The village, according to tradition, was founded after the destruction of Paleo Korakovouni (a settlement that existed near Prastos) by Turkish troops in 1687. [2] Along with Paleo Korakovouni, Agios Ioannis, Meligou, Kastanitsa and Prastos were also destroyed. After the destruction of the village, the inhabitants founded a new village in the place where today is Mount Korakovouni. During the years of Ottoman rule the settlement belonged to the Vilaeti of Agios Petros. According to a Venetian census of 1699, the village had two churches: Agios Dimitrios and Panagia, as well as two vicars. [3] In the 18th and 19th the Korakovounites developed trade relations with various areas, as the Korakovounites lived and traded in places such as Spetses, Hydra, Constantinople, Odessa etc.

During the years 1750 – 1775 in the village acted the thief George Leventis (grandfather of the friend), who was the first son of Konstantis Kolokotronis. [4] With the founding of the Friendly Society, many Korakovounites became members, most importantly the merchant George Leventis (1790 – 1847). The contribution of the Korakovounites to the Revolution of 1821 was significant, as more than 100 fighters were distinguished in the battles of Doliana, Vervena, Tripolitsak.a. In 1826 the village was completely destroyed by the hordes of Ibrahim Pasha. After the liberation, the village was subordinated to the Municipality of Vrasia (1834 – 1912). From Korakovouni came the Winter Korakovouni, which was created during the 18th century. and is a permanent residence of the Korakovounites.


Beautiful Village, named after the complex of seven Kastritochorion, as the largest village in the area until 1960. The other villages are Messorachi, Perdikovrisi, Nea Chora, Karatoulas, Oria and Elatos. 25 Kilometers from Tripoli, it is located at an altitude of 950 meters and is a traditional mountain village that combines tranquility and leisure opportunities, such as walks, the discovery of mountain nature and the gorges of Parnon but also offers the possibility of religious ascension as northeast of the village is a one of the most picturesque monasteries, of Timios Prodromos. It has a tourist infrastructure with rooms for rent and many taverns for food. The visitor can get to know the popular culture through shrines, watermills, threshing floors and traditional fountains that are still preserved today and explore the environment and nature of Parnon through the Environmental Education Center that operates in the square. For those who are enchanted by unique routes in nature, from the village begins a road that ends through Vourvouron and Karya in the national Tripoli-Sparta. Captain Zacharias Varvitsiotis acted in Kastri with a great participation in the struggle of 1821.

Kastritochoria Kastritochoria, centered on Kastri-Agios Nikolaos, are located on a verdant and complex in terms of flora slope of Parnon. Magnificent natural landscape and beautiful settlements that create a separate unit of seven villages, Kastri, Elatos, Karatoulas, Mesorrachi, Nea Chora, Perdikovrisi and Oria. The oral tradition states that the seven settlements were created by inhabitants of the coastal area of ​​Thyrea, near Astros, who, in order to escape the raids of the enemies, coming from the sea, proceeded to the mountainous areas, mainly following its riverbed. Tanos river and its tributaries. These first settlers were followed by other Thyrates who were scattered in the settlements of Kastri and thus their population increased. During the Turkish occupation, the Kastritochoria actively participated in the revolution of 1821. After the liberation from the Turks, when with a decree of 1834/5 the Municipalities of the Prefecture of Arcadia were formed, the Municipality of Tania was created, which included the Kastritochoria. In 1912 the Municipality of Tania was abolished and communities were established in the area. In the years that followed, the population almost doubled until the war of 1940, when it began to decline due to the blood tax on the Germans, the civil war and later internal and external immigration.


In the area of ​​Tsakonia, Prastos, Agios Andreas, Kastanitsa, Sitaina and of course in the neighboring Municipality of South Kynouria Leonidio, Tyros and other villages, the Tsakonian dialect is still used today, which has its roots in ancient Doric ”. “Tsakonika is the oldest living language in Greece.

In this special part of the Greek land called Tsakonia (the cradle of Tsakonia was Prastos, Kastanitsa and Sitaina), in these rugged places, the inhabitants of the area, with few means, not only survived, but left behind a valuable heritage, the Tsakonian tradition, the beautiful language, the unique evocative Tsakonian dance, the Tsakonian songs, the weaving art, their habits, what we call today customs and traditions. All this composes the identity of the place with a living language that is in the hands of the Tsakonians, but also of all Hellenism, to embrace it and protect it from oblivion


“Kaur made the country of namos” that is “Welcome to our village”

“And for history, for the Tsakonians, he first speaks in the 9th century AD. the emperor of Byzantium Constantine the Purple-Born. Around 1000 AD. the Tsakonians left over from the great Slavic invasions began their peaceful work, necessary for their survival. A few years later – in 1293 AD – the first Tsakonochori, Kastanitsa, made its official written appearance. “

Kastanitsa, perched on the slopes of Mount Parnon, at 840 m., Is the oldest Tsakonochori, with a history of more than seven centuries and one of the oldest mountain villages of Kynouria (s.s. belongs to the municipality of North Kynouria). Characterized since 1967 by the Ministry of Culture by Presidential Decree, a traditional – preserved settlement with special natural and architectural beauty, built on a narrow hill, stands out with its tower houses, painted white, with roofs of local slate Malevos and wood with bright colors on the doors and windows and flowered courtyards.

In a golden bull Imperial Byzantine decree, of the year 1293, there is a written reference to Kastanitsa. This is the oldest written reference to a specific village. Kastanitsa, too, contributed to the fight. Known for the victorious battle against the army of Ibrahim and the chief “Kapsabelis” whose name has been given to one of the squares of the village. Today, almost all the Tower Houses survive and part of the old three-storey Kapsabelis Tower, which was destroyed in the civil war. Of special value is the wood-carved and gilded iconostasis of the Transfiguration of the Savior, a gift from the Empress of Russia Catherine.


Prastos is mentioned for the first time in a gold bullion of the emperor Andronikos II Palaiologos in 1293 with the name Proastion. It succeeded the ancient city of Orion, as it became the seat of the Diocese of Reontos Prastos, thus becoming the largest Tsakonochori. He gained great power and wealth during the Second Ottoman Empire (18th & early 19th century). At that time it is estimated that Prastos had a population of over 6,000 people, 30 churches, 9 parishes, 3 monasteries, 2 castles and several mansions – tower houses. People traveled to Spetses, Hydra, Istanbul and other places and acquired large fortunes.

In 1819, Prastos was separated from the Vilaeti of Agios Petros and became the capital of the Vilaeti of Prastos. This vilayet also included Kastanitsa, Sitaina, today’s Agios Andreas, Korakovouni, the area of ​​Tyros, up to Leonidio.

During the years of Ottoman rule, the historic Prastos, seat of the diocese of Prastos and Reontos, capital of Tsakonia, with more than 3,500 inhabitants engaged in trade, contributed much to the liberation struggle until it was destroyed, in 1826 by Ibrahim who set it on fire. thus its economic and population flourishing ceased. Today there are ruins of Reontos and Prastos. Some Byzantine churches. Tower houses and a multitude of ruins that show its former prosperity.


During the pre-revolutionary years, the well-known thief and captain of Captain Zacharias, Dimitrios Kaliontzis, was born in Sitaina. The contribution of the village was also important during the Revolution of 1821, as 150 Sitainiotes joined various corps, with great success. In 1826 Ibrahim Pasha completely destroyed the village, as well as all the other villages of Kynouria. According to tradition, the villagers took refuge in the cave of Zaggoli.



• From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

• I. Kouskouna, K. Hasapogianni, I. Kakavoulia – Thyreatis Gi, Athens 1981, Angeliki & Leonida Zafeiri Memorial Foundation

• Nikolaou Flouda – Thyreatika volume B ‘: Astros, the golden gem, the historian 1983

• Nikolaou Flouda – Thyreatika, volume C ‘: Agios Ioannis, metropolis of Thyreas settlements, Athens 1983

• Nikolaou Flouda – Two hundred years of the School of Agios Ioannis Astros Kynouria, Athens 1965

• Ioannis M. Arvanitis – From the Sources of our People, volume A, NW

• Smaragdis I. Arvanitis – The schools of Dimitrios Karytsiotis in Agios Ioannis and Astros Thyreas – Kynourias during the pre-revolutionary years until the liberation, Company P Hellenic Studies, Athens 2001

• Smaragdis I. Arvanitis – 2nd National Assembly of the Stars By Arkades Esmen

• Smaragdis I. Arvanitis – The Second National Assembly of the Greeks in Astros by arkadia press

• Smaragdis I. Arvaniti Agios Ioannis Kynourias, From Arkades Esmen

• Smaragdis I. Arvanitis – Studies of Byzantine and Post-Byzantine Archeology and Art in honor of Professor Eleni Deligianni-Dori. The post-Byzantine church of Agios Georgios in Agios Ioannis Kynourias brief presentation of the monument and the iconographic program, Athens 2010

• Smaragdis I. Arvanitis – The castle of Paralio Astros Kynouria first remarks, Athens 2007

astros-kynourianews.gr – News website / Media

Municipality of North Kynouria (boriakinouria.gov.gr)

Zafeiris Foundation of Astros

Mount Parnon & Moustos Wetland Management Agency



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